The structure of wooden prefabricated buildings has some differences in the three types of structural systems that are used in their construction. These species are the following:
The differences consist of the significance of load-bearing beams and columns in the skeletal-beam system, which give the load from the covered structures to the foundations. The panel construction of the supporting beams and columns is avoided and their role in transmitting the load is performed by the walls (panels). In some cases, the panel construction system uses columns that serve as corner joints between the walls. The exchange construction system offers volumetric cells for individual rooms or entire buildings. They can be made with load-bearing elements on the other two structural systems. The wooden prefabricated building consists of different types of structural elements that build its shape through appropriate joints between them.
The wooden prefabricated building has a skeletal-beam structural system with supporting beams and columns. The building is designed for year-round use, as a home or as a villa. It is built on one floor, and wood materials are widely used in the structural elements.
The strip foundations have two thicknesses: a larger one, which is for the part dug into the ground, and a smaller one for the part above the ground level. The space between the foundations is filled with concrete, on which there is an insulating waterproof flooring for a wet room. In the other parts of the building, between the foundations above the terrain, a concrete floor is made. It has a smaller thickness to obtain an air cushion for ventilation. This protects the elements of the floor construction against increasing humidity. To prevent the penetration of moisture from the concrete foundations to the next structural elements, the classic method of covering with moisture impermeable materials are known in construction was used. They can be - bituminous paper, bituminous tarpaulin, waterproof screed, and others. The building has no basement and the built-up area above elevation 0 (zero) on the foundations of the building is between 30 - 50 centimeters.
On the insulation of the foundations lie the bearing elements of the floor structure - beams and slats, to which the floor insulation is attached. By suitable joints, the columns are connected to the foundations and the beams of the floor structure. The upper belt beams on which the trusses stand are attached to them. In the formed frame between the beams and the columns are built external walls (on-site or in advance, as panels). In this case, the wall is called multilayer, as the chosen external facade covering is wooden cladding. The most commonly used exterior doors are ordinary, and double-glazed windows.
The thickness of the walls, the type of doors and windows used, and the solid insulation of the ceiling confirm the purpose of the building - for year-round use and in very harsh climatic conditions. The insulation of the ceiling in this construction is located in the space between the trusses, which are made of beams of softwood. On their lower side are nailed the boards for the ceiling covering of the premises. The end trusses are closed with details made of flat materials, treated for resistance to the weathering of external factors. The farms are connected with capitals of coniferous ponds, on which the tablecloth is attached. On the ridge, there are special covers of the same material, and at the hood, the cover ends with a gutter and a front board. The eaves are formed by the projecting ribs of the trusses and can be covered with softwood boards, which should be done in the direction along the length of the building.
A wooden building can be built with a basement to it. There is a possibility to access the attic via a folding ladder. The foundations are made of concrete. They are called strip concrete foundations, and the above-ground part must be reinforced. By appropriate insulation between the foundations and the elements of the floor structure stepping on them, the basic rule for blocking the path of moisture that comes from the soil of the terrain in the direction of the walls must be observed.
The floor structure must be made of transverse load-bearing elements of thick planks and longitudinal - boards that are connected. On the basement side, the transverse load-bearing elements must be lined in series with some insulating sheet material. This is a grill made of thin boards with a cladding of plate materials, which is nailed (caught) to them. The additional reinforcement against throwing in the horizontal direction of the cross-bearing beams is good to do using cross-nailed beams. The insulation in the floor constructions is carried out by the air space between the ceiling of the cellar and the elements under the flooring. These elements are mounted on the transverse planks in the following sequence.
The walls of wooden prefabricated buildings in this case are multilayer insulation panels, which are connected to the floor structure by grooved slats, which are called guides. The upper guides are stepped on by trusses, which are usually joined together by tightly nailed boards. A waterproof barrier is laid on them, and a wooden grill is placed on it. The latter serves as the basis of the tablecloth - bent sheet metal or some other similar building material. The ceiling of the premises is most often built in many layers. This is done by sequentially attaching on the underside of the trusses of insulating sheet material and the concrete details of slab building materials.
The doors and windows of wooden prefabricated buildings can be entirely according to the preferences of each person. Ordinary double-glazed doors and windows are most often used. In this implementation, the good insulation of the roof and the walls are laid in this way for a building that will be intended for year-round use. Even very harsh winter conditions will not be a problem for the comfort of the occupants.
With the skeletal-beam construction system, in addition to panels, the walls can also be made on site. In this case, however, they must have additional horizontal and inclined friezes lying in a vertical plane. They are joined by special notches and forged with dowels, nails, and staples. In the fields that form between the friezes, it is good to put insulation and then the wall is nicely shaped with a cladding of various suitable building materials. In practice, this type of wall construction is called "wooden rafter walls" and can be both external and internal walls.