The use of solar energy for the production of electricity or hot water for heating and domestic hot water supply (DHW) are among the most common solutions for increasing energy efficiency through renewable energy sources. The possibility for quick and easy installation of the systems and the various installation options are among the prerequisites for these systems to be more often preferred over the other possibilities for energy recovery from RES.
A frequently used and preferred method of installation is the installation of solar collectors on the roof of the prefabricated building. In the case of photovoltaic systems, the installation of the roof is also preferred from the point of view of the new regulatory framework. According to which roof photovoltaic installations up to 5 kWpsell the produced electricity at significantly higher prices than the ground ones.
When installing photovoltaic systems on a roof, it is good to keep in mind the need for preliminary study of the possibility of the roof wooden structure to withstand the load of the system with the desired size. If necessary, measures can be taken to strengthen and strengthen the structure.
Another important condition is that the free surface of the roof is exposed to the least possible shading by neighboring buildings, chimneys, antennas, and others. The recommended roof orientation is south, southeast or southwest. When exposed to the east or west, the system will produce less electricity. Specialists point to flat roofs as the most convenient for this purpose. They offer greater flexibility in the location of the modules and the achievement of maximum production.
Photovoltaic panels on flat roofs are usually mounted parallel to the roof or at a certain angle. The bearing profiles are placed horizontally or vertically. They are most often made of aluminum or stainless steel. When placing the profiles in several rows, it is necessary to take measures against the possibility of mutual shading of the modules. The rule, in this case, is to place them at a distance of 3 times the height of the panel.
The problem of shading can be avoided by using cylindrical photovoltaic modules. They allow horizontal mounting and do not require leaving a distance between the panels. The modules are placed close to each other on their own mounting structure at a distance of 35 cm from the roof surface. Free air exchange must take place. When using this type of collector, the roof is covered with a special material in white color. They shall be so placed that the collectors make use of the reflected and diffused light.
- A common technique used in the installation of photovoltaic panels on flat roofs is their placement on the so-called baths. They are designed as a basis for single modules. A commonly used material for their manufacture is polyethylene, and their surface is treated with a UV-resistant coating. Drainage holes are made in the bottom of the tub, and ventilation holes are made on the other three sides. In order to be able to withstand the wind loads, it is necessary to fill them with ballast before installing the panels.
The type of roofing is also important in this case. It must provide a coefficient of friction between the roof surface and the bathtub of not less than 0.6.
- Sloping roof systems usually have two supporting cross-sections. The cross-sections are connected to the roof by special S-shaped elements, rails, and roof anchors. The modules are attached to the profiles with middle and end terminals. Often the panels are mounted longitudinally, but transverse mounting is also possible. They are available in variants for tile, sheet metal, asbestos cement, bitumen, and other roofs.
In cases where standard mounting systems are not applicable, freely constructed cross rails are used.